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26 739 2018
英語常用詞guess疑難用法
可以表示“猜測但不一定猜中”(第二類動詞),但也可以表示“猜中”(第四類動詞)。大體上,可以從它的搭配上加以區別:
(1)在下列情況下是“猜測但不一定猜中”:
(a)祈使句。【例如】Guess who she brought with her! 你猜猜她把誰給帶來了!/ Guess what? 你猜猜看(我要告訴你什么)?間接的祈使句也有相同的情況。【例如】Ask the children to guess what's in each container by dipping their hands in. 叫孩子們把手伸進每個容器里面沾一下,猜容器里面盛著什么。
(b)第一人稱的一般現在時。【例如】I guess I must be going now. 我想我該走了。/ I guess I got the news a day or so late. 我想我收到這個消息晚了一兩天。
(c)任何時態后接間接問句或以that(可省略)引入的名詞從句。【例如】They'd already guessed who was going to be appointed. 他們已經推測誰會得到任命。/ She guessed that she was fifty yards from shore. 她推測自己離岸五十碼遠。
(d)進行式。【例如】I suggest that you keep her guessing. 我建議你最好讓她摸不透。
(e)guess后面有介詞at或about。【例如】What went on in Townsend's mind at that point could only be guessed at. 湯森德此時有什么心事,只能靠猜測。/ Stroeve tried to talk to me about the picture, but he was incoherent. I had to guess at what he meant.(Somerset Maugham, The Moon and Sixpence, Chapter XXXIX) 施特略夫盡量想把他見到的這幅畫描述給我聽,但是他說得前言不搭后語,許多意思都只能由我猜測。/ She likes to keep them guessing about her age. 她喜歡讓他們摸不透她的年齡。
(2)在下列情況下是“猜中”:
(a)一般將來時或過去將來時(肯定或否定)。【例如】You'll never guess what he said.你永遠也猜不出他那時說的是什么。/ He was twenty-six, but no one would ever guess. He looked nineteen. 他已經二十六歲了,但是誰都猜不出來。他看起來像十九歲。/ He would immediately guess their true intent. 他就會馬上猜出他們的真正意圖。
(b)現在、過去或將來完成時。【例如】Someone might have guessed our secret and passed it on. 可能有人猜出了我們的秘密,傳了出去。/ He should have guessed what would happen. 會發生什么事,他本來應該猜得出來。/ You will no doubt have guessed the truth: that she was far less mad than she seemed.... (John Fowles, The French Lieutenant's Woman, Chapter 9, p. 64) 不用說,讀者也可以猜到實情:她表面上好象是瘋了,實際上根本就沒有瘋…
(c)前面有can (could) 或happen to。【例如】I can guess what's going through your mind. 你心里想些什么,我都能猜得出來。/ No one can guess the true reason. 真正的原因,誰都猜不出來。/ Can you guess how old I am? 你能猜得出我幾歲嗎?/ Most of the students happened to guess the right answer. 大多數學生猜中了正確的答案。
(d)后面有名詞賓語。【例如】guess a riddle猜中一個謎(比較guess at a riddle猜一個謎)/ I had guessed the identity of her lover. 我猜出了她的情人是誰。
(e)過去時后面沒有下文。【例如】How did you guess? 你是怎樣猜出來的?
(f)前面或后面有表示難易、正誤等意義的詞語。【例如】His age is hard to guess.他的年齡很難猜得出來。/ He guessed right about some things. 他對某些事情是猜中了。/ She guessed wrong. 她猜錯了。
(g)一般過去時否定。【例如】But still he did not guess. Nor did he — but in this case, how could he?— guess what had happened to Sarah when she left him the previous afternoon. (John Fowles, The French Lieutenant's Woman, Chapter 23, p. 198) (劉憲之、藺延梓譯本是:“盡管如此,可他并不猜疑。同樣,他也沒有猜測前一天下午莎拉離開他后碰到了什么事。”看來有誤。似應改為:“盡管如此,可他并沒有猜出來。同樣,他也沒有猜出(在這件事情上,他又怎么可能猜得出來呢)前一天下午莎拉離開他后碰到了什么事。”

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